Article Summary: Exploring the Potential of NMN Supplementation for Anti-Aging Effects
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is vital for human physiology.
- NAD+ levels decline with age in various body parts.
- Increasing NAD+ status may affect the aging process and associated metabolic issues.
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a precursor to NAD+.
- NMN supplementation increases NAD+ levels and may address aging-related disorders.
- The use of NMN as an anti-aging health supplement is gaining popularity.
- The safety and physiological effects of NMN supplementation in humans need clarification.
- Multiple human clinical trials with NMN are currently ongoing.
- This review summarizes the progress of these trials and the biology of NMN/NAD+.
- Future research directions are discussed.
The Significance of NMN Supplementation in Anti-Aging:
- The global demand for anti-aging products is increasing due to a growing population over the age of 60.
- NMN has become a popular anti-aging product used as a supplement and in cosmetics.
- The global NMN market was valued at $252.7 million in 2020 and is projected to reach $385.7 million by 2027.
- The US FDA has prohibited β-NMN as a health supplement, causing concerns among manufacturers and consumers.
- NAD+ depletion is linked to aging and age-related diseases, making the maintenance of NAD+ levels crucial for health.
- Caloric restriction and NAD+ precursors like NMN can raise NAD+ concentrations and potentially have anti-aging effects.
- Animal studies show promising results with NMN supplementation, but human research is still needed to establish safety and anti-aging effects.
Understanding NMN and NAD+:
- NAD+ exists in oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH) forms.
- NAD+ is crucial for energy metabolism and redox reactions.
- Maintaining normal NAD+ levels is essential for healthy aging and tissue homeostasis.
- Aging is associated with a gradual decline in NAD+ concentration across human tissues.
- Reduced NAD+ levels can lead to decreased energy production and contribute to aging and age-related disorders.
- Strategies to increase NAD+ levels have shown positive outcomes in preclinical studies, including improved organ functions and cognitive protection.
- NMN is a direct precursor to NAD+ and has been shown to increase NAD+ levels in human trials.
- NMN supplementation has exhibited safety and potential anti-aging effects, such as improved aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and cognitive function.
- NMN is available as a dietary supplement and is often combined with other anti-aging agents.
- NMN can be synthesized through chemical, microbial, or enzymatic methods.
- More comprehensive clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NMN in humans.
Safety and Efficacy of NMN Supplementation:
- Several published human clinical trials have been conducted on NMN supplementation.
- Short-term studies on healthy men showed no significant clinical symptoms, harmful effects, or vital sign changes.
- Oral administration of various NMN doses (250 mg-1000 mg) has been found to be safe and well-tolerated.
- However, the number of participants in the conducted trials has been limited.
- Further research is needed to determine the long-term oral administration safety and dietary reference intake of NMN in different age groups.
- NMN supplementation has shown potential in improving sleep quality, physical activity, and physical performance.
- It did not significantly affect ophthalmic parameters or overall cognitive function.
- NMN supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and telomere length in certain population groups.
- Completed but unpublished and ongoing clinical trials are investigating the safety, anti-aging effects, and therapeutic potential of NMN.
Future Research Directions and Conclusion:
- Longer, larger, and better-designed trials are needed to determine safe dosages, tolerance, and frequency of NMN supplementation in the long term.
- Studies should include larger and more diverse populations to observe potential adverse effects and understand if NMN benefits specific groups.
- More comprehensive research is necessary to fully comprehend the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of NMN.
- Mechanistic toxicological studies should be conducted to evaluate absorption, metabolic enzyme effects, and the role of gut microbiota.
- The effects of NMN on different tissues and organs should be studied.
- Establishing clear standards and baseline NAD+ measurements in populations is essential.
- The excessive hype surrounding NMN in the market should be addressed, and efficacy in humans, particularly for skin aging, should be further investigated.
- Appropriate clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the effects and safety of NMN supplements.
- Human clinical trials suggest that NMN supplementation is generally safe and may have potential as an anti-aging agent.
- More extensive research is needed to determine safe dosages, long-term effects, and potential adverse reactions.
- NMN supplementation has exhibited positive outcomes in improving various health parameters.
- The authors are grateful to anonymous reviewers and editors for their valuable input, which has improved the manuscript's quality.
- The supplementary data for this article can be found online.
Title of paper: The Safety and Antiaging Effects of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide in Human Clinical Trials: an Update
Author(s): Song Q, Zhou X, Xu K, Liu S, Zhu X, Yang J.
Year published: 2023
Published in: Adv Nutr
Original article can be found here.